Last updated on: 11/17/2021 | Author: ProCon.org

Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturer Information

Listed below are vaccine ingredients (substances that appear in the final vaccine product), process ingredients (substances used to create the vaccine that may or may not appear in the final vaccine product), and growth mediums (the substances vaccines are grown in) for vaccines licensed for use by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

Three vaccines licensed for use by the FDA (plague, poliovax, and rabies vaccine adsorbed) are listed on the FDA site, but do not have available package inserts or other information, and thus are not included below.

Additionally, though the Moderna and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccines were approved by the FDA for emergency use, they have not yet received full FDA approval for non-emergency use as of Nov. 17, 2021, and thus are not included below. More information on Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and the COVID-19 vaccines may be found on the FDA site. The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine has been approved for non-emergency use and is included below.

Controversial products used to make vaccines include but are not limited to: African Green Monkey (Vero) cells, aluminum, cow products, Cocker Spaniel cells, formaldehyde, human fetal lung tissue cells, insect products, and mouse brains. More information on some controversial products may be found in the glossary on this page.

Though not listed, each vaccine contains strains of the virus being vaccinated against. Each vaccine entry links to the manufacturer’s package insert that contains information about dosage, ingredient quantity, and how the vaccine is made. Some vaccines, like influenza (flu) vaccines, are modified frequently and you may wish to consult your doctor’s office or pharmacy for the most current information.



1. Adenovirus Vaccine

Adenovirus Type 4 and Type 7 Vaccine, Live, Oral

Manufacturer: Barr Labs Inc.

Package Insert (Oct. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

human-diploid fibroblast cell cultures (WI-38), Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, fetal bovine serum, sodium bicarbonate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polacrilin potassium, magnesium stearate, live adenovirus [Type 4 or Type 7, dried substance includes monosodium glutamate, sucrose, D-mannose, D-fructose, dextrose, human serum albumin, potassium phosphate, and plasdone C], microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, and anhydrous lactose, cellulose acetate phthalate, alcohol, acetone, castor oil; Type 7 tablet also contains FD&C Yellow #6 aluminum lake dye.


2. Anthrax Vaccine

Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Emergent BioDefense Operations Lansing LLC

Biothrax Package Insert (Nov. 2015)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

amino acids, vitamins, inorganic salts, sugars

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

proteins [including the 83kDa protective antigen (PA) protein], aluminum, benzethonium chloride, formaldehyde


3. BCG Vaccine
(tuberculosis)

BCG Live

Manufacturer: Organon Teknika Corp.

Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

glycerin, asparagine, citric acid, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, iron ammonium citrate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

lactose, sterile water


BCG Live

Manufacturer: Organon Teknika Corp.

Tice BCG Package Insert (Feb. 2009)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

glycerin, asparagine, citric acid, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, iron ammonium citrate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

lactose, saline


4. Cholera Vaccine

Cholera Vaccine Live Oral

Manufacturer: Emergent Travel Health, Inc.

Vaxchora Frozen Package Insert (June 2016)
Vachora Package Insert (Dec. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

frozen: casamino acids, yeast extract, mineral salts, anti-foaming agent, ascorbic acid, Hy-Case SF, sodium chloride, sucrose, dried lactose

other: casamino acids, yeast extract, mineral salts, anti-foaming agent, ascorbic acid, Hy-Case SF, sucrose, anhydrous lactose

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

frozen: sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, ascorbic acid, dried lactose, sucrose, sodium chloride, Hy-Case SF

other: sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, ascorbic acid, anhydrous lactose, sucrose, Hy-Case SF, anhydrous lactose


5. COVID-19 Vaccine
(coronavirus)

COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA

Manufacturer: BioNTech Manufacturing GmbH

Comirnaty Package Insert (Aug. 2021)

[Editor’s Note: This vaccine is commonly known as the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine.]

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium chloride, lipids ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate), 2-(polyethylene glycol 2000)-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, sucrose


6. Dengue Vaccine

Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine, Live

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

DENGVAXIA Package Insert (June 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vero cells (African Green Monkey kidney), stabilizer solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium chloride, essential amino acids (including L-phenylalanine), non-essential amino acids, L-arginine hydrochloride, sucrose, D-trehalose dihydrate, D-sorbitol, trometamol, urea


7. DT Vaccine
(diphtheria & tetanus)

Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.

Package Insert (June 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum phosphate, isotonic sodium chloride solution, formalin, tryptic digest of casein, cystine, maltose, uracil, inorganic salts, vitamins

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde


8. DTaP Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, & pertussis)

Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Infanrix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fenton medium (containing bovine extract), Latham medium, Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, aluminum hydroxide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein), aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80).


Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.

DAPTACEL Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, aluminum phosphate, Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), 2-phenoxyethanol, water

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 2-phenoxyethanol


9. DTap-HepB-IPV Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, & polio)

Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Pediarix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fenton medium containing a bovine extract, Latham medium derived from bovine casein, formaldehyde, Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells, VERO cells, calf serum, lactalbumin hydrolysate, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein), HBsAg, aluminum salts, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, yeast protein


10. DTaP-IPV Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, & polio)

Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

KINRIX Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fenton medium containing a bovine extract, Latham medium derived from bovine casein, formaldehyde, Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide, VERO cells, calf serum and lactalbumin hydrolysate,

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (69 kiloDalton outer membrane protein), aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B


Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Limited

Quadracel version 1 Package Insert (Feb, 2021)

Quadracel version 2 Package Insert (Dec. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

version 1: Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, aluminum phosphate, Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-betacyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, aluminum phosphate, MRC-5 cells, CMRL (Connaught Medical Research Laboratories) 1969 medium supplemented with calf serum, Medium 199 without calf serum, 2-phenoxyethanol, water

version 2: Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, aluminum phosphate, Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-betacyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, Vero cells, Iscove’s medium, calf serum, M199 medium without calf serum, 2-phenoxyethanol, water

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

version 1: filamentous hemagglutinin(FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum phosphate, 2-phenoxyethanol, water, polysorbate 80, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, 2-phenoxyethanol, neomycin, polymyxin B sulfate

version 2: filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum phosphate, polysorbate 80, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, streptomycin sulphate, neomycin and polymyxin B sulphate


11. DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, haemophilus influenzae type B, & hepatitis B)

Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate [Meningococcal Protein Conjugate] and Hepatitis B [Recombinant] Vaccine

Manufacturer: MSP Vaccine Company

VAXELIS Package Insert (Oct. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, aluminum phosphate, Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-betacyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, Vero cells, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast, soy peptone, dextrose, amino acids, mineral salts, phosphate buffer, alum (potassium aluminum sulfate), amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemin chloride, soy peptone, dextrose, mineral salts, N. meningitidis serogroup B

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum, polysorbate 80, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, neomycin, streptomycin sulfate, polymyxin B sulfate, ammonium thiocyanate, yeast protein


12. DTaP-IPV-Hib Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, & haemophilus influenzae type B)

Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Limited

Pentacel version 1 Package Insert (Feb. 2021)

Pentacel version 2 Package Insert (Dec. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

version 1: Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, aluminum phosphate, Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-betacyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, aluminum phosphate, MRC-5 cells,, CMRL (Connaught Medical Research Laboratories) 1969 medium (supplemented with calf serum), Medium 199 (without calf serum), 2-phenoxyethanol, water, semi-synthetic medium

version 2: Mueller’s growth medium, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, aluminum phosphate, Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethyl-beta310 cyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, Vero cells, Iscove’s medium (supplemented with calf serum), M199 medium without calf serum, 2-phenoxyethanol, water

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

version 1: filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum phosphate, polysorbate 80, sucrose, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, 2-phenoxyethanol, neomycin, polymyxin B sulfate

version 2: filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM), aluminum phosphate, polysorbate 80, 2-phenoxyethanol, sucrose, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, streptomycin sulphate, neomycin, polymyxin B sulphate.


13. Ebola Vaccine

Ebola Zaire Vaccine, Live

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

ERVEBO Package Insert (2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

serum-free Vero cell cultures

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Tromethamine (Tris), rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin, host cell DNA, benzonase, rice protein


14. Hib Vaccine
(haemophilus influenzae type B)

Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate)

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

PedvaxHIB Package Insert (1998)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

complex fermentation media

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate (previously referred to as aluminum hydroxide), sodium chloride


Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, SA

ActHIB Package Insert (May 17, 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

semi-synthetic medium, ammonium sulfate, Mueller and Miller medium, milk-derived raw materials (casein derivatives)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

saline diluent, purified capsular polysaccharide


Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Hiberix Package Insert (Apr. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

synthetic medium, semi-synthetic medium, formaldehyde, lactose, sterile saline solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

purified capsular polysaccharide, lactose, formaldehyde


15. Hep A Vaccine
(hepatitis A)

Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Havrix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

MRC-5 human diploid cells

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum hydroxide, amino acid supplement, phosphate-buffered saline solution, polysorbate 20, MRC-5 cellular proteins, formalin, neomycin sulfate


Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

VAQTA Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

nonviral protein, DNA, bovine albumin, formaldehyde, neomycin, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, sodium borate, sodium chloride


16. Hep A & Hep B Vaccine
(hepatitis A & hepatitis B)

Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Twinrix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

MRC-5 human diploid cells, formalin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, aluminum salts

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

listaluminum phosphate, aluminum hydroxide, amino acids, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, polysorbate 20, water, formalin, MRC-5 cellular proteins, neomycin sulfate, yeast protein


17. Hep B Vaccine
(hepatitis B)

Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)

Manufacturer: Merck & Co, Inc

Recombivax HB Package Insert (Dec. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients :

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

yeast cells, fermentation medium [extract of yeast, soy peptone, dextrose, amino acids, mineral salts], phosphate buffer, formaldehyde, potassium aluminum sulfate, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

yeast protein, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, formaldehyde.


Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Engerix-B Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, aluminum hydroxide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

listyeast protein. aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, phosphate buffers [disodium phosphate dihydrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate]


Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant), Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: Dynavax Technologies Corporation

HEPLISAV-B Package Insert (2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Hansenula polymorpha yeast, fermentation media [vitamins, mineral salts], CpG 1018 adjuvant [22-mer phosphorothioate linked oligodeoxynucleotide, phosphate buffered saline (sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, dibasic dodecahydrate, monobasic dihydrate, polysorbate 80)]

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

yeast protein, yeast DNA, deoxycholate, CpG 1018


18. HPV Vaccine
(human papillomavirus)

Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Vaccine, Recombinant

Manufacturer: Merck & Co., Inc

Gardasil Package Insert (Apr. 2015)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation media [vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts, carbohydrates], amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant, sodium chloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, yeast protein, water


Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Gardasil 9 Package Insert (Aug. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation media [vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts, carbohydrates], amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, sodium chloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, yeast protein, water


Human Papillomavirus Bivalent (Types 16, 18) Vaccine, Recombinant

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Cervarix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

serum-free culture media [lipids, vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts], hydroxide salt, AS04 [3-O-desacyl-4’-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), hydroxide salt, sodium chloride, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, water

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

3-O-desacyl-4’-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, insect cell and viral protein, bacterial cell protein


19. Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine
(swine flu)

Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

Manufacturer: CSL Limited

Package Insert (Nov. 2009)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density gradient, betapropiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

thimerosal, sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone


Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

Manufacturer: MedImmune LLC

Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

pathogen-free (SPF) eggs, stabilizing buffer

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

monosodium glutamate, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, arginine, sucrose, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, gentamicin sulfate


Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

Manufacturer: ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec

Package Insert (Jan. 2010)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate-buffered saline solution, thimerosal, egg proteins, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate


Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

Manufacturer: Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Limited

Package Insert (Sep. 2009)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, neomycin, polymyxin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate buffered saline, thimerosal, egg proteins, polymyxin, neomycin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate


Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.

Package Insert (Sep. 2009)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, non-ionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

formaldehyde, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether, sucrose, thimerosal


20. Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine
(bird flu)

Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1 (for National Stockpile)

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

Package Insert (Apr. 2007)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

porcine gelatin, thimerosal, formaldehyde, polyethylene glycol pIsooctylphenyl ether, sucrose


Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine, Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec

Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate-buffered saline solution, allantoic cavity of embryonated hen’s eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, squalene, DL-α-tocopherol, polysorbate 80

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

AS03 adjuvant emulsion, thimerosal, DL-α-tocopherol, polysorbate 80, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate


Influenza A (H5N1) Monovalent Vaccine, Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: Seqirus, Inc.

AUDENZ Package Insert (Sep. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, culture medium, ß-propiolactone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

MF59C.1 adjuvant (MF59) [squalene, polysorbate 80, sorbitan trioleate, sodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid monohydrate] , protein other than HA, MDCK cell protein, MDCK cell DNA, polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, ß-propiolactone, thimerosal


21. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine

Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: Seqirus, Inc.

Fluad Quadrivalent Package Insert (Mar. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, MF59C.1 adjuvant (MF59®), formaldehyde, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

MF59C.1 adjuvant [squalene, polysorbate 80, sorbitan trioleate, sodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid monohydrate], neomycin, kanamycin, hydrocortisone, egg protein (ovalbumin), formaldehyde, CTAB


Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: Seqirus, Inc.

Fluad Package Insert

[Editor’s Note: This vaccine was approved on July 2, 2021, and, as of Nov. 1, 2021, the FDA had not uploaded the package insert. Relevant information, including the package insert if the FDA has uploaded it after this note, is available here: https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/vaccines/fluad]

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)


Influenza Vaccine

Manufacturer: Seqirus Pty Ltd.

Afluria Quadrivalent Package Insert (Mar. 2021)

Afluria Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere Package Insert (2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Afluria Quadrivalent: allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density gradient, beta-propiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution

Afluria Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere: allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density gradient, beta-propiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution.

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Afluria Quadrivalent: thimerosal, sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, sucrose, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone, hydrocortisone

Afluria Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere: thimerosal, sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, sucrose, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone, hydrocortisone


Influenza Vaccine

Manufacturer: Seqirus, Inc.

Flucelvax Quadrivalent Package Insert (Mar. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, culture medium, β-propiolactone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate buffered saline, MDCK cell protein, protein other than HA, MDCK cell DNA, polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, βpropiolactone, thimerosal


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Seqirus Pty. Ltd.

Afluria Package Insert (Dec. 2019)

Afluria Southern Hemisphere Package Insert (2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Afluria: allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density gradient, beta375 propiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution

Afluria Southern Hemisphere: allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density gradient, beta-propiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Afluria: sodium chloride, monobasic sodium, phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, sucrose, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone, hydrocortisone

Afluria Southern Hemisphere: thimerosal, sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, sucrose, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone, hydrocortisone


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec

FluLaval Package Insert (Nov. 2016)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate-buffered saline solution, thimerosal, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80


Influenza Vaccine, Live, Intranasal (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Medimmune LLC

FluMist Package Insert

[Editor’s Note: This vaccine was approved on July 9, 2020, and, as of Nov. 1, 2021, the FDA had not uploaded the package insert. Relevant information, including the package insert if the FDA has uploaded it after this note, is available here: https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/vaccines/flumist]

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Fluarix Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

embryonated chicken eggs, linear sucrose density gradient solution, sodium deoxycholate, formaldehyde, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

octoxynol-10 (TRITON® 272 X-100), α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), hydrocortisone, gentamicin sulfate, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Seqirus Vaccines Limited

Fluvirin Package Insert (Mar. 2017)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, neomycin, polymyxin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate buffered saline, thimerosal, egg proteins (ovalbumin), polymyxin, neomycin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Seqirus Inc.

Agriflu Package Insert (Jan. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, kanamycin, neomycin sulphate, formaldehyde, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

thimerosal, egg proteins, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80, CTAB, neomycin, kanamycin, barium


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Inc (for Fluzone High-Dose and Fluzone Intradermal only)

Fluzone Package Insert (2015)

Fluzone High-Dose Package Insert (2019)

Fluzone Intradermal Package Insert (2017-2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fluzone: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® 214 X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Fluzone High-Dose: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, inear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Fluzone Intradermal: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® 17 X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fluzone: thimerosal, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate, gelatin

Fluzone High-Dose: sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate, gelatin

Fluzone Intradermal: sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Trivalent, Types A and B)

Manufacturer: Seqirus, Inc.

Flucelvax Package Insert (Apr. 2016)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, culture medium, ß-propiolactone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate buffered saline, MDCK cell protein, protein other than HA, MDCK cell DNA, polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethlyammonium bromide, and β-propiolactone


Influenza Vaccine (Trivalent)

Manufacturer: Protein Sciences Corporation

Flublok Package Insert (Mar. 2017)

[Editor’s Note: The package insert for this vaccine may be found by following the “Supporting Documents older than three years – Flublok” link on this page: https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/vaccines/flublok]

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda] cell line (expresSF+®), serum-free medium [lipids, vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts], baculovirus vector (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus), Triton X-100

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate , dibasic sodium phosphate, polysorbate 20 (Tween®20), baculovirus and Spodoptera frugiperda cell proteins, baculovirus and cellular DNA, Triton X-100


Influenza Vaccine (Quadrivalent)

Manufacturer: not bold

Flublok Quadrivalent Package Insert (Mar. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda] cell line (expresSF+®), serum-free medium [lipids, vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts], baculovirus vector (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus), Triton X-100

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, and polysorbate 20 (Tween®20), baculovirus and Spodoptera frugiperda cell proteins, baculovirus and cellular DNA, Triton X-100


Influenza Vaccine,Live, Intranasal (Quadrivalent, Types A and Types B)

Manufacturer: MedImmune LLC

FluMist Quadrivalent Package Insert (Aug. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs, stabilizing buffer

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

monosodium glutamate, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, arginine, sucrose, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, ovalbumin, gentamicin sulfate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Quadrivalent, Types A and Types B)

Manufacturer: Glaxosmithkline Biologicals

Fluarix Quadrivalent Package Insert (2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

embryonated chicken eggs, linear sucrose density gradient solution, sodium deoxycholate, formaldehyde, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

octoxynol-10 (TRITON X-100), αtocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), hydrocortisone, gentamicin sulfate, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate


Influenza Virus Vaccine (Quadrivalent, Types A and Types B)

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent Package Insert (July 2021)

Fluzone Quadrivalent Package Insert (2021)

Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent Package Insert (May 10, 2016)

Fluzone Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere Package Insert (2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Fluzone Quadrivalent: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution , octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® 17 X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Fluzone Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere: embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton® X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent: sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate, gelatin

Fluzone Quadrivalent: thimerosal, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate

Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent: sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate

Fluzone Quadrivalent Southern Hemisphere: thimerosal, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate


Influenza Vaccine

Manufacturer: ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec

Flulaval Quadrivalent Package Insert (2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

allantoic cavity of embryonated hens’ eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

phosphate-buffered saline solution, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80


22. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Valneva Austria GmbH

Ixiaro Package Insert (Sep. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vero cells, protamine sulfate, sucrose density gradient, formaldehyde

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum hydroxide, formaldehyde, bovine serum albumin, host cell DNA, sodium metabisulphite, host cell protein, protamine sulfate


23. MMR Vaccine
(measles, mumps, & rubella)

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live

Manufacturer: Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp.

M-M-R II Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

chick embryo cell culture; WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, recombinant human serum albumin, fetal bovine serum

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sorbitol, sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, recombinant human albumin, fetal bovine serum, neomycin, other buffer and media ingredients


24. MMR & Varicella Vaccine
(measles, mumps, rubella, & chickenpox)

Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live

Manufacturer: Merck Sharpe & Dohme Corp

ProQuad Refrigerator-Stable Formulation Package Insert (Oct. 2018)

ProQuad Frozen Formulation – Recombinant Human Albumin (RHA) Package Insert (undated)

ProQuad Frozen Formulation – Human SerumAlbumin (HSA) Package Insert (undated)

ProQuad Frozen Package Insert (Apr. 2021)

ProQuad Refrigerated Package Insert (Oct. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Refrigerator-Stable Formulation: chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 cells

Frozen Formulation – Recombinant Human Albumin (RHA): embryo cell culture; WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 cells

Frozen Formulation – Human SerumAlbumin (HSA): chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 cells

Frozen: chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung, MRC-5 cells

Refrigerated: chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 cells

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Refrigerator-Stable Formulation: sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, urea, sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, neomycin, bovine serum albumin, other buffer and media ingredients

Frozen Formulation – Recombinant Human Albumin (RHA): sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride; potassium phosphate dibasic, residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, neomycin, bovine calf serum, other buffer and media ingredients

Frozen Formulation – Human SerumAlbumin (HSA): sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, urea, sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, residual components of MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, neomycin, bovine serum albumin, other buffer and media ingredients

Frozen: sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, potassium phosphate dibasic, residual components from the manufacturing process [MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, neomycin, bovine calf serum, other buffer and media ingredients]

Refrigerated: sucrose, sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin, urea, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, monosodium L-glutamate, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, residual components from the manufacturing process [MRC-5 cells including DNA and protein, neomycin, bovine calf serum, other buffer and media ingredients]


25. Meningococcal Vaccine

Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, and W-135) Oligosaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA

Menveo Package Insert (July 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Franz Complete medium, formaldehyde, CY medium [yeast extracts, amino acids]

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

formaldehyde


Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y and W-135) Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

Menactra Package Insert (Apr. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Mueller Hinton agar, Watson Scherp media [casamino acid], modified culture medium [hydrolyzed casein], formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium phosphate buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde


Meningococcal Group B Vaccine

Manufacturer: Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc

BEXSERO Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Escherichia coli, deoxycholate, aluminum hydroxide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Neisserial adhesin A (NadA), Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen (NHBA), factor H binding protein (fHbp), outer membrane vesicles (OMV), aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, histidine, sucrose, kanamycin


Meningococcal Group B Vaccine

Manufacturer: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

TRUMENBA Package Insert (2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

E. coli, fermentation growth media, polysorbate 80 (PS80)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

polysorbate 80, Al³+ as AlPO4, histidine buffered saline


Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Groups A, C, Y and W-135 Combined

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

Menomune-A/C/Y/W-135 Package Insert (Mar. 14, 2016)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Mueller Hinton casein agar, Watson Scherp casamino acid media

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

water, thimerosal, polysaccharide from each of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135, lactose


Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, W) Conjugate Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.

MenQuadfi Package Insert (Oct. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Mueller Hinton agar medium, Watson Scherp medium, carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH), periodate, ammonium sulfate, formaldehyde

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sodium chloride, sodium acetate, formaldehyde


26. Pneumococcal Vaccine
(pneumonia)

Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Pneumovax 23 Package Insert (Apr. 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

isotonic saline solution, phenol


Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM197 Protein)

Manufacturer: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Prevnar 13 Package Insert (Aug. 2017)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

soy peptone broth, casamino acids and yeast extract-based medium, chemically-defined medium, ammonium sulfate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

polysorbate 80, succinate buffer, aluminum phosphate


Pneumococcal 15-valent Conjugate Vaccine

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

VAXNEUVANCE Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

growth media [yeast extract, dextrose, salts, soy peptone], glycerol-based chemically-defined salt medium, aluminum phosphate, histidine, polysorbate 20, sodium chloride.

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

L-histidine, polysorbate 20, sodium chloride, aluminum phosphate


Pneumococcal 20-valent Conjugate Vaccine

Manufacturer: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Prevnar 20 Package Insert (June 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

soy peptone broth, casamino acids and yeast extract-based medium, chemically defined medium

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

polysorbate 80, succinate buffer, sodium chloride, aluminum phosphate


27. Polio Vaccine

Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (Monkey Kidney Cell)

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, SA

IPOL Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vero cells, Eagle MEM modified medium, newborn calf bovine serum, M-199 [without calf bovine serum], formalin

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

M-199 medium, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, calf bovine serum albumin


28. Rabies Vaccine

Rabies Vaccine

Manufacturer: not bold

Imovax Package Insert (Oct. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

human diploid cells [MRC-5 strain], beta-propiolactone

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

human albumin, neomycin sulfate, phenol red indicator, beta-propiolactone


Rabies Vaccine

Manufacturer: Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics

RabAvert Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

chicken fibroblasts, synthetic cell culture medium [with added human albumin, polygeline (processed bovine gelatin), antibiotics], β-propiolactone, sucrose density gradient, stabilizer solution [buffered polygeline, potassium glutamate]

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

polygeline (processed bovine gelatin), human serum albumin, potassium glutamate, sodium EDTA, bovine serum, chicken protein, ovalbumin, neomycin, chlortetracycline, amphotericin B


29. Rotavirus Vaccine

Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

ROTARIX Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vero cells

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

amino acids, dextran, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) [sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium sulfate, ferric (III) nitrate, sodium phosphate, sodium pyruvate, D-glucose, concentrated vitamin solution, L-cystine, L-tyrosine, amino acids solution, Lglutamine, calcium chloride, sodium hydrogenocarbonate, phenol red], sorbitol, sucrose, Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1), liquid diluent [calcium carbonate, sterile water, xanthan, calcium carbonate]


Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Pentavalent

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

RotaTeq Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Vero cells, buffered stabilizer solution

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sucrose, sodium citrate, sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, sodium hydroxide, polysorbate 80, cell culture media, fetal bovine serum


30. Smallpox & Monkeypox Vaccine

Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-Replicating

Manufacturer: Bavarian Nordic A/S

JYNNEOS Package Insert (June 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, serum-free medium

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Tris (tromethamine), sodium chloride, host-cell DNA, protein, benzonase, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin


31. Smallpox Vaccine

Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live

Manufacturer: Emergent Product Development Gaithersburg, Inc.

ACAM2000 Package Insert (Apr. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

African Green Monkey kidney (Vero) cells

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

HEPES, human serum albumin, sodium chloride, mannitol, neomycin, polymyxin B, diluent [glycerin, phenol, water]


32. TD Vaccine
(tetanus & diphtheria)

Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed

Manufacturer: MassBiologics

TDVAX (NDC 14362-0111) Package Insert (Sep. 2018)

TDVAX (NDC 13533-131) Package Insert (Sep. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

TDVAX (NDC 14362-0111): modified Mueller’s media, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, aluminum phosphate

TDVAX (NDC 13533-131): modified Mueller’s media, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, aluminum phosphate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

TDVAX (NDC 14362-0111): aluminum, formaldehyde, thimerosal

TDVAX (NDC 13533-131): aluminum, formaldehyde, thimerosal


Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed for Adult Use

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.

TENIVAC Package Insert (Nov. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, modified Mueller’s growth medium, aluminum phosphate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, sodium chloride, water


Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Inc

Package Insert (June 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

formalin, culture medium [casein, cystine, maltose, uracil, inorganic salts, vitamins]

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum phosphate, isotonic sodium chloride solution, free formaldehyde.


33. Tdap Vaccine
(tetanus, diphtheria, & pertussis)

Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.

Adacel Package Insert (Dec. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Stainer-Scholte medium, casamino acids, dimethylbeta-cyclodextrin, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, aluminum phosphate, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium without beef heart infusion, ammonium sulfate, modified Mueller’s growth medium

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 2-phenoxyethanol, water


Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

Boostrix Package Insert (Sep. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

modified Latham medium derived from bovine casein, Fenton medium containing a bovine extract, formaldehyde, modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)


34. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine

Manufacturer: Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals

TICOVAC Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, formaldehyde, sucrose gradient, aluminum hydroxide

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

human serum albumin, aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, formaldehyde, sucrose, protamine sulfate, chick protein, DNA from CEF cells, neomycin, gentamicin


35. Typhoid Vaccine

Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a

Manufacturer: Berna Biotech, Ltd.

Vivotif Package Insert (Sep. 2013)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

gelatin capsules, sucrose, ascorbic acid, amino acid mixture, lactose, magnesium stearate

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

gelatin capsules, sucrose, ascorbic acid, amino acid mixture, lactose, magnesium stearate


Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral TTyphoid Vi Polysaccharide Vacciney21a

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur SA

TYPHIM Vi Package Insert (Mar. 2020)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

semisynthetic medium, casein derived raw materials, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, formaldehyde

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

formaldehyde, phenol, polydimethylsiloxane, fatty-acid ester-based antifoam, isotonic phosphate buffered saline, sodium chloride, disodium phosphate, monosodium phosphate, water


36. Varicella Vaccine
(chickenpox)

Varicella Virus Vaccine Live

Manufacturer: Merck Shark & Dohme Corp.

Varivax Frozen Package Insert (undated)

Varivax Refrigerator Package Insert (undated)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Frozen: human embryonic lung cell cultures, embryonic guinea pig cell cultures, human diploid cell cultures (WI-38)

Refrigerator: human embryonic lung cell cultures, embryonic guinea pig cell cultures, human diploid cell cultures (WI-38)

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Frozen: sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, processed gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride. MRC-5 cells [DNA, protein], sodium phosphate monobasic, EDTA, neomycin, fetal bovine serum

Refrigerator: sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, processed gelatin, urea, sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, MRC-5 cells [DNA, protein], neomycin, bovine calf serum


37. Yellow Fever Vaccine

Yellow Fever Vaccine

Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur, Inc

YF-Vax Package Insert (Feb. 2019)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

living avian leukosis virus-free (ALV-free) chicken embryos

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sorbitol, gelatin, sterile diluent [sodium chloride injection]


38. Zoster Vaccine
(shingles)

Zoster Vaccine, Live, (Oka/Merck)

Manufacturer: Merck & Co., Inc

Zostavax Frozen Package Insert (Jan. 2019)

Zostavax Refrigerator Stable Package Insert (Aug. 2018)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Frozen:

Refrigerator Stable:

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

Frozen: sucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, MRC-5 cells [DNA, protein], neomycin, bovine calf serumsucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, MRC-5 cells [DNA, protein], neomycin, bovine calf serum

Refrigerator Stable: sucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, urea, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, MRC-5 cells [DNA, protein], neomycin, bovine calf serum


Zoster Vaccine Recombinant, Adjuvanted

Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals

SHINGRIX Package Insert (July 2021)

Growth Mediums and Process Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells, growth media [amino acids], AS01B [3-O-desacyl-4’-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) from Salmonella minnesota, QS-21 (saponin purified from plant extract Quillaja saponaria Molina), liposomal formulation (dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), cholesterol, phosphate-buffered saline solution (disodium phosphate anhydrous, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, water for injection))]

Vaccine Ingredients:

(in addition to the virus strain(s) being vaccinated against)

sucrose, sodium chloride, DOPC, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, cholesterol, sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, disodium phosphate anhydrous, dipotassium phosphate, polysorbate 80, host cell proteins, host cell DNA


Glossary

ProductExplanation of Product
[sources]
2-Phenoxyethanol2-Phenoxyethanol is a glycol ether used as a preservative in vaccines.
AluminumAluminum is used in vaccines as an adjuvant, which helps the vaccine work more quickly and more powerfully.
Bovine caseinA casein is a family of phosphoproteins commonly found in mammalian milk. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk are casein.
Bovine serum"[T]he centrifuged fluid component of either clotted or defibrinated whole blood. Bovine serum comes from blood taken from domestic cattle. Serum from other animals is also collected and processed but bovine serum is processed in the greatest volume."

"Bovine serum is categorized according to the age of the animal from which the blood was collected as follows:
•'Fetal bovine serum' comes from fetuses
•'Newborn calf serum' comes from calves less than three weeks old
•'Calf serum' comes from calves aged between three weeks and 12 months
•'Adult bovine serum' comes from cattle older than 12 months
Serum processed from donor blood is termed 'donor bovine serum'. Donor animals can be up to three years old."
Chicken EggsViruses can be grown in chicken eggs before being used in vaccinations.
CMRL-1969Common Ingredients: L-alanine, L-arginine (free base)b, L-aspartic acid, L-cysteine-HCL, L-cystine, L-glutamic acid-H20, L-glutamine, glycine, L-histidine (free base)b, L-hydroxyproline, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine, p-aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, d-biotin, calcium pantothenate, cholesterol, choline chloride, ethanol, folic acid, glutathione, i-inositol, menadione, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal-HCL, pyridoxine-HCL, riboflavine, riboflavine-5-phosphate, sodium acetate-3H2O, thiamine-HCL, Tween 80, vitamin A acetate, vitamin D (calciferol), vitamin E (a-tocopherol phosphate), D-glucose, phenol red, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium culphate heptahydrate, sodium phosphate dibasic, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, monopotassium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, iron nitrate nonahydrate
Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's SerumCommon Ingredients: glucose, sodium bicarbonate, L-glutamine, pyridoxine HCl, pyridocal HCl, folic acid, phenol red, HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonic acid), L-methionine, L-cystine, sodium phosphate mono-basic, sodium pyruvate, vitamins
Earle's Balanced Salt MediumCommon Ingredients: inorganic salts, D-glucose, phenol red, calcium, magnesium salts
Fenton Mediumbovine extract
FormaldehydeFormaldehyde is used in vaccines to inactivate the virus so the person being inoculated does not contract the disease.
Human albuminHuman albumin is a blood plasma protein produced in the liver that, among other functions, transports hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, and buffers pH.
Insect CellsCabbage moth and fall armyworm cells are used to grow viruses for vaccines.
Latham Mediumbovine casein
MDCK (Madin-Carby canine kidney cells)Common Ingredients: Cells from normal female adult Cocker Spaniel (harvested in 1958 by SH Madin and NB Darby), EMEM(EBSS) (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's Balanced Salt Solution), glutamine, non essential amino acids, foetal bovine serum
Mouse BrainsLive mice brains are inoculated with the Japanese encephalitis virus to grow the virus used in the vaccine.
MRC-5Common Ingredients: Medical Research Council 5, human diploid cells (cells containing two sets of chromosomes) derived from the normal lung tissues of a 14-week-old male fetus aborted for "psychiatric reasons" in 1966 in the United Kingdom, Eagle's Basal Medium in Earle's balanced salt solution with bovine serum.
Mueller Hinton AgarCommon Ingredients: beef extract, acid hydrolysate of casein, starch, agar
Mueller-Miller MediumCommon Ingredients: glucose, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate dibasic, monopotassium, phosphate, magnesium sulfate hydrate, ferrous sulfate heptaphydrate, cystine hydrochloride, tyrosine hydrochloride, urasil hydrochloride, Ca-pantothenate in ethanol, thiamine in ethanol, pyridoxin-hydrochloride in ethanol, riboflavin in ethanol, biotin in ethanol, sodium hydroxide, beef heart infusion (de-fatted beef heart and distilled water), casein solution
Polysorbate 80Also called Tween 80, Alkest 80, or Canarcel 80 (brand names), Polysorbate 80 is used as an excipient (something to basically thicken a vaccine for proper dosing) and an emulsifier (something to bond the ingredients).
Porcine gelatinGelatin is used to protect viruses in vaccines from freeze-drying or heat and to stabilize vaccines so they stay stable.
Stainer-Scholte Liquid MediumCommon Ingredients: tris hydrochloride, tris base, glutamate (monosodium salt), proline, salt, monopotassium phosphate, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, niacin, glutathione
ThimerosalThimerosal is an organomercury compound used as a preservative.
Vero Cells (African Green Monkey Cells)Vero cells were derived from the kidney of a normal, adult African Green monkey in 1962 by Y. Yasumura and Y. Kawakita.
WI-38 human diploid cellsWinstar Institute 38 is the human diploid lung fibroblasts derived from the lung tissues of a female fetus aborted because the family felt they had too many children in 1964 in the United States.

Sources for Glossary

Acumedia Manufacturers, “Mueller Hinton Agar (7101),” neogen.com, June 2011

Atlanta Biologicals, “Earle’s Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS),” atlantabio.com, 2010

CDC, “Basics and Common Questions: Ingredients of Vaccines – Fact Sheet,” cdc.gov, Feb. 22, 2011

FDA, “Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US with Supporting Documents,” fda.gov, Aug. 29, 2016

Health Protection Agency, “General Cell Collection: MDCK,” hpacultures.org.uk, 2011

G.M. Healy, S. Teleki, A.V. Seefried, M.J. Walton, and H.G. Macmorine, “Improved Chemically Defined Basal Medium (CMRL-1969) for Primary Monkey Kidney and Human Diploid Cells,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, aem.asm.org, 1971

International Serum Industry Association, “FAQ,” serumindustry.org/faq, 2013

Pontifical Academy for Life, “Moral Reflections on Vaccines Prepared from Cells Derived from Aborted Human Foetuses,” immunize.org/concerns/vaticandocument.htm, June 9, 2005

Rebecca Sheets, “History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line,” da.gov, May 12, 2000

Sigma-Aldrich, “DMEM,” sigmaaldrich.com, 2013

Alison Weiss, “The Genus Bordetella,” The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, Ed. Martin M. Dworkin, Stanley Falkow, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, and Erko Stackebrandt, 2006.

World Health Organization, “Production and Control of Tetanus Vaccine: A Training Curriculum, Module III: Principles of Tetanus Vaccine Production,” who.int, Sep. 3, 1999