Last updated on: 8/7/2020 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

1.CDC, "School Vaccination Requirements, Exemptions and Web Links,", July 21, 2011
2.Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, "All Timelines Overview," (accessed July 30, 2014)
3.University of Massachusetts Medical School, "History of MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School," (accessed July 30, 2014)
4.Daniel A. Salmon, "Mandatory Immunization Laws and the Role of Medical, Religious and Philosophical Exemptions,", Oct. 2003
5.Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, "Government Regulation,", Jan. 27, 2014
6.James G. Hodge, Jr. and Lawrence O. Gostin, "School Vaccination Requirements: Historical, Social, and Legal Perspectives as of February 15, 2002: A State of the Art Assessment of Law and Policy,", Feb. 15, 2002
7.Robert M. Wolfe, "Anti-Vaccination Activists, Past and Present," British Medical Journal, Aug. 24, 2002
8."Opposed to Vaccination," New York Times, Feb. 17, 1882
9.Congressional Research Service, "Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws,", Jan. 18, 2005, "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901," (accessed July 31, 2014)
11.Zucht v. King, United States Supreme Court, Nov. 13, 1922
12.College of Physicians of Philadelphia, "The History of Vaccines: Timelines, Diseases and Vaccines," (accessed June 25, 2014)
13.CDC, "Reported Cases and Deaths from Vaccine Preventable Diseases, United States, 1950-2011,", Mar. 14, 2012
14."National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (42 USC 201)," Federal Register, Nov. 14, 1986
15.Stephen Engelberg, "Vaccine: Assessing Risks and Benefits," New York Times, Dec. 19, 1984
16.US Court of Federal Claims Office of Special Masters, "Vaccine Program Background," (accessed Dec. 11, 2009)
17.US Department of Health and Human Services, "National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program,” (accessed Aug. 4, 2014)
18.Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, "About the VAERS Program," (accessed Aug. 4, 2014)
19."Comprehensive Child Immunization Act of 1993," Federal Register, Nov. 4, 1993
20.Andrew Wakefield, et al., "RETRACTED: Illeal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,", Feb. 1998
21.CNN Wire Staff, "Retracted Autism Study an 'Elaborate Fraud,' British Journal Finds,", Jan 5,
22.Simon H. Murch, et al., "Retraction of an Interpretation,", Mar. 6, 2004
23.Lancet Editors, "Retraction—Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,", Feb. 6, 2010
24.Fiona Goodlee, Jane Smith, and Harvey Marcovitch, "Wakefield's Article Linking MMR Vaccine and Autism Was Fraudulent,", Jan. 6, 2011
25.Maria Cheng, "Britain Bans Doctor Who Linked Autism to Vaccine," Associated Press, May 24, 2010
26.Centers for Disease Control (CDC), "Thimerosal in Vaccines: A Joint Statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service,", July 9, 1999
27.US House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform Subcommittee on Human Rights and Wellness, "Mercury in Medicine - Taking Unnecessary Risks,", May 2003
28.Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., "Deadly Immunity,", Feb. 24, 2005
29.US Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, "Thimerosal and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Alleged Misconduct by Government Agencies and Private Entities,", Sep. 2007
30.Institute for Vaccine Safety, "Thimerosal Table,", Nov. 30, 2009
31.Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, Aug. 27, 2010
32.Bruesewitz v. Wyeth, United States Supreme Court, Feb. 22, 2011
33.Kathleen Stratton, et al., "Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality,", Aug. 25, 2011
34.Institute of Medicine (IOM), "Report Brief - Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality,", Aug. 25, 2011
35.V. Demicheli, et al., "Using the Combined Vaccine for Protection of Children Against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella,", Feb. 15, 2012
36.John Hinton, "Nearly 750 Local Students Who Lack Required Whooping Cough Vaccination Face Suspension,", Sep. 23, 2013
37.WLWT, "No School Recommended for Unvaccinated Kids,", Apr. 16, 2014
38.Amanda Marcotte, "A Great Ruling for Public Health and a Big Blow to the Anti-Vaccination Movement,", June 25, 2014
39.Dan Childs, "No School for You! Unvaccinated Students Shut Out,", Sep. 16, 2011
40.Benjamin Mueller, "Judge Upholds Policy Barring Unvaccinated Students during Illnesses,", June 22, 2014
41.Sydney Spiesel, "I'm a Pediatrician. Should I Treat All Kids, or Just the Vaccinated Ones?,", Mar. 17, 2014
42.Arthur L. Caplan, et al., "Free to Choose but Liable for the Consequences: Should Non-Vaccinators Be Penalized for the Harm They Do?,", Fall 2012
43.American Academy of Pediatrics, "Vaccine Safety: The Facts,", 2008
44.Shot@Life, "The Solution: Vaccines," (accessed June 4, 2014)
45.Bahar Gholipour, "Vaccination Has Saved 732,000 Children's Lives Since 1994, Says Report,", Apr. 25, 2014
46.Kelley King Heyworth, "Vaccines: The Reality behind the Debate," (accessed June 9, 2014)
47.FDA, "Thimerosal in Vaccines,", Mar. 14, 2014
48.CDC, "Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Safety,", Feb. 27, 2014
49.CDC, "Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines,", Feb. 4, 2014
50Nancy Shute, "Report: Vaccines Are Safe, Hazards Few and Far Between,", Aug. 25, 2011
51.US Department of Health and Human Services, "Safety," (accessed June 5, 2014)
52.Matthew Herper, "Dear Jenny McCarthy, Here's How Many Lives Could Be Saved Cheaply by Making Vaccines More Widely Available,", Apr. 16, 2014
53.WHO, "Vaccine Position Papers," (accessed June 5, 2014)
54.Public Health Agency of Canada, "Vaccine Safety: Frequently Asked Questions,", Apr. 28, 2014
55.Canadian Paediatric Society, "Vaccine Safety,", Nov. 2013
56.National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, "Top Reasons to Get Vaccinated," (accessed June 5, 2014)
57.American Medical Association, "AMA Encourages Community-Clinical Partnerships to Increase Use of Preventative Health Services among Boomers,", Nov. 19, 2009
58.American Academy of Family Physicians, "Confusion, Safety Concerns Contribute to Low Seasonal Flu Vaccine Coverage among Pregnant Women,", Aug. 4, 2009
59.WHO, "What Are Some of the Myths – and Facts – about Vaccination?,", Apr. 2013
60.Kathleen Dohenny, "Expert Q&A: Childhood Vaccine Safety," (accessed June 4, 2014)
61.US Department of Health and Human Services, "Community Immunity ('Herd Immunity')," (accessed June 5, 2014)
62.Steven L. Weinreb, "For the Herd’s Sake, Vaccinate,", Dec. 27, 2011
63.David E. Sugerman, et al., "Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated," Pediatrics, Apr. 1, 2010
64.Mark Fishetti, "Too Many Children Go Unvaccinated,", May 14, 2013
65.Gardiner Harris, "5 Cases of Polio in Amish Group Raises New Fears,", Nov. 8, 2005
66.Steven F. Hirsch, "Protecting the 'Herd': Why Vaccinations Still Matter,", Aug. 2007
67.CDC, "Five Important Reasons to Vaccinate Your Child,", Apr. 8, 2011
68.Michael Smith, "How Long Should Children Stay out of School after H1N1 Flu?,", Nov. 4, 2009
69.CDC, "CDC Study: Treating Children's Flu Illness Costly,", May 21, 2012
70.North Dakota Department of Health, "What Do I Need to Know? Rotavirus,", Feb. 2006
71.US Department of Health and Human Services, "The Affordable Care Act and Immunization,", Jan. 20, 2012
72.CDC, "About Rubella,", Apr. 29, 2011
73.College of Physicians of Philadelphia, "1941: Rubella Implicated in Congenital Defects," (accessed June 6, 2014)
74.CDC, "Smallpox Disease Overview,", Dec. 30, 2004
75.Walter Orenstein, "Opening Session: An Overview of Vaccinology,", Nov. 15-17, 2013
76.CDC, "Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases,", Feb. 25, 2012
77.Polio Global Eradication Initiative, "Polio This Week as of 4 June 2014,", June 4, 2014
78.CNN Staff, "Ohio Measles Outbreak Continues to Grow,", June 5, 2014
79.CDC, "Measles,", June 10, 2014
80.David Satcher, "Statement on Risk vs Benefit of Vaccinations by David Satcher, M.D., PH.D.,", Aug 3, 1999
81.Mark Wilson, "How Just 3 Vaccines Can Save Us $63 Billion [Infographic],", June 14, 2012
82.Joseph M. Mercola, "Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects – The Institute of Medicine Says So!,", Sep. 27, 2011
83.National Vaccine Information Center, "Autism," (accessed June 11, 2014)
84.Robert W. Sears, "New Study Shows Possible Link between Environmental Mercury and Autism – What about Vaccine Mercury?," (accessed June 11, 2014)
85.Robert W. Sears, "Vaccine FAQS: Aluminum Information from The Vaccine Book," (accessed June 11, 2014)
86.VaxTruth, "Vaccine Ingredients – A Comprehensive Guide,", Aug. 15, 2011
87.CDC, "Ingredients of Vaccines – Fact Sheet," Feb. 22, 2011
88.Jospeph M. Mercola, "MSG: Is This Silent Killer Lurking in Your Kitchen Cabinets,", Apr. 21, 2009
89.National Vaccine Information Center, "Barbara Speaks Out!," (accessed June 11, 2014)
90.Ron Paul, "Government Vaccines—Bad Policy, Bad Medicine,", Dec. 10, 2002
91.Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute, "First Amendment," (accessed June 11, 2014)
92.Oyez, "Cantwell v. State of Connecticut," (accessed June 11, 2014)
93.Mahesh Vidula, "Individual Rights vs. Public Health: The Vaccination Debate," (accessed June 11, 2014)
94.Olivia K. Wenger, et al., "Underimmunization in Ohio's Amish: Parental Fears Are a Greater Obstacle Than Access to Care,", June 27, 2011
95.Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, "The Church of Illumination: Tenet on Vaccination and Immunization,", 2013
96.Universal Family Church, "FAQ," (accessed June 11, 2014)
97.Vatican, "Moral Reflections on Vaccines Prepared from Cells Derived from Aborted Human Foetuses,", June 9, 2005
98.Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, "General Vaccine Safety Concerns,", Apr. 2013
99.Mayo Clinic, "Childhood Vaccines: Tough Questions, Straight Answers,", May 8, 2013
100.Kurt Perkins, "Dr. Kurt: Why I Will Never Choose to Vaccinate My Own Son and Any Future Kids My Wife and I Have,", June 12, 2014
101.A Shot of Truth, "Congressman Bill Posey Speaks on the Need for Openness and Transparency within the CDC on Issues of Vaccine Safety,", Apr. 8, 2014
102.Institutes of Medicine, "Julie Gerberding," (accessed Aug. 7, 2014)
103.Gregory Poland, "Vaccines against Lyme Disease: What Happened and What Lessons Can We Learn?,", Feb. 1, 2011
104.L. Simonsen, C. Viboud, A. Elixhauser, R.J.Taylor, and A.Z. Kapikian, "More on Rotashield and Intussusception: The Role of Age at the Time of Vaccination," Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2005
105.CDC, "Keeping the U.S. Polio-Free,", Mar. 19, 2014, "Chickenpox,", Sep. 2012
107.CDC, "Measles Overview,", June 3, 2014, "Measles,", Oct. 2011, "About Rubella,", July 2012
110.CDC, "About Rotavirus: Symptoms,", May 12, 2014
111.WebMD, "Rotavirus – Topic Overview,", July 9, 2012, "Correcting our Record,", Jan. 16, 2011
113.Sanjay Gupta, "Dr. Sanjay Gupta: Vaccines Are a Matter of Fact,", Feb. 5, 2015
114.Bharathi S. Gadad, "Administration of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines to Infant Rhesus Macaques Does Not Result in Autism-Like Behavior,", Oct. 6, 2015
115.Melissa Healy, "Old-School and Current Vaccines Have No Link to Autism (again), Study Says,", Sep. 28, 2015
116.Maggie Fox, "Measles Has Been Eliminated in the Americas, WHO Says,", Sep. 27, 2016
117.Michelle Goldstein, "10 Reasons Not to Vaccinate,", Dec. 12, 2014
118.Pan American Health Organization, "Americas Region Declared the World's First to Eliminate Rubella,", Apr. 29, 2015
119.History of Vaccines, "Disease Eradication," History of Vaccines website, Jan. 25, 2016
120.History of Vaccines, "History of Polio (Poliomyelitis)," History of Vaccines website, Mar. 10, 2016
121.CDC, "Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule,", Feb. 1, 2016
122.Anders Hviid, et al., "Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination and Autism: A Nationwide Cohort Study,", Mar. 5, 2019
123.Wayne Drash, "Measles Quarantine Issued at Two California Universities,", Apr. 28, 2019
124.CDC, "About Pertussis Outbreaks,", Aug. 7, 2017
125.Megan Henry, "The Cost of This Century’s Worst Measles Outbreak,", Apr. 27, 2019
126.Nathaniel Weixel, "Measles Outbreak Spreads to 24 States,", May 20, 2019
127.WHO, "Global Wild Poliovirus 2014 - 2019,", May 14, 2019
128.CDC, "NIIW (National Infant Immunization Week),", Feb. 13, 2019
129.CDC, "Pink Book Appendix E: Reported Cases and Deaths from Vaccine Preventable Diseases, United States,", Mar. 2018
130.Manisha Patel, et al., "Increase in Measles Cases - United States, January 1 - April 26, 2019,", May 3, 2019
131.CDC, "Measles Cases and Outbreaks,", May 20, 2019
132.WHO, "Measles and Rubella Surveillance Data,", May 13, 2019
133.Noam Tau, Dafna Yahav, and Daniel Shepshelovich, "Postmarketing Safety of Vaccines Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration,", July 28, 2020
134.Deidre McPhillips, "COVID-19 Vaccines Will Be on the 2023 Vaccine Schedule, but That Doesn’t Mean They’re Required in Schools,", Oct. 20, 2022
135.National Academy for State Health Policy, "States Address School Vaccine Mandates and Mask Mandates,", Oct. 3, 2022
136.CDC, "ACIP Immunization Schedule Vote,", Oct. 20, 2022
137.CDC, Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines,", Oct. 20, 2022
138.CDC, "Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccines,", Oct. 19, 2022
139.Shixin (Cindy) Shen and Vinita Dubey, “Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy: Clinical Guidance for Primary Care Physicians Working with Parents,”, Mar. 2019
140.World Health Organization, Poliomyelitis (Polio), (accessed Feb. 17, 2023)
141.Martha Hostetter and Sarah Klein, “Understanding and Ameliorating Medical Mistrust among Black Americans,”, Jan. 14, 2021
142.Shabab Ahmed Mirza and Caitlin Rooney, “Discrimination Prevents LGBTQ People from Accessing Health Care,”, Jan. 18, 2018
143.B. Ashleigh Guadagnolo, “Medical Mistrust and Less Satisfaction with Health Care among Native Americans Presenting for Cancer Treatment,”, Apr. 6, 2009
144.Eric Whitney, “Native Americans Feel Invisible in U.S. Health Care System,”, Dec. 12, 2017
145.Katrina Armstrong, et al., “Racial/Ethnic Differences in Physician Distrust in the United States,”, July 2007
146.Brian K. Lee, Herd Immunity,, Jan. 13, 2023