Vaccine Ingredients and Manufacturer Information
(alphabetical order by vaccine)


We have listed vaccine ingredients (substances that appear in the final vaccine product), process ingredients (substances used to create the vaccine that may or may not appear in the final vaccine product), and growth mediums (the substances vaccines are grown in) for vaccines approved by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) and commonly recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC.) Controversial products used to make vaccines: African Green Monkey (Vero) cells, aluminum, cow products, Cocker Spaniel cells, formaldehyde, human fetal lung tissue cells, insect products, and mouse brains.

Though not listed, each vaccine contains strains of the virus being vaccinated against. Each vaccine entry links to the manufacturer's package insert that contains information about dosage, ingredient quantity, and how the vaccine is made. Some vaccines, like influenza vaccines, are modified frequently and you may wish to consult the package inserts online and your doctor for the most current information.
vaccine syringe vials
I. Vaccines and Ingredients
II. Glossary and Details for Ingredients
III. Sources

I. VACCINES AND INGREDIENTS
1. Adenovirus
2. Anthrax
3. BCG (tuberculosis)
4. Cholera
5. DT (diphtheria & tetanus)
6. DTap (diphtheria, tetanus, & pertussis)
7. DTap-IPV (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, & polio)
8. DTap-HepB-IPV (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, & polio)
9. DTap-IPV/Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, & haemophilus influenzae type B)
10. Hib (haemophilus influenzae type B)
11. Hib/Hep B (haemophilus influenzae type B & hepatitis B)
12. Hep A (hepatitis A)
13. Hep B (hepatitis B)
14. Hep A/Hep B (hepatitis A & hepatitis B)
15. HPV (human papillomavirus)
16. Influenza A (H1N1) (swine flu)
17. Influenza A (H5N1) (bird flu)
18. Influenza A & B
19. Japanese Encephalitis

20. Meningococcal
21. Measles
22. MMR (measles, mumps, & rubella)

23. Pneumococcal
24. Polio
25. Rabies
26. Rotavirus

27. Rubella

28. Smallpox
29. TD (tetanus & diphtheria)
30. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, & pertussis)

31. Typhoid
32. Varicella (chickenpox)
33. Yellow Fever
34. Zoster (shingles)

1. Adenovirus Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Adenovirus Type 4 and Type 7 Vaccine, Live, Oral
--
Barr Labs/Teva Pharmaceuticals (under contract with US Army)
Apr. 2014
human-diploid fibroblast cell cultures (WI-38), Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, fetal bovine serum, sodium bicarbonate sucrose, D-mannose, D-fructose, dextrose, potassium phosphate, plasdone C, anhydrous lactose, micro-crystalline cellulose, polacrilin potassium, magnesium stearate, cellulose acetate phthalate, alcohol, acetone, castor oil, FD&C Yellow #6 aluminum lake dye, human serum albumin, monosodium glutamate
2. Anthrax Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed
Biothrax
Emergent Biosolutions
Nov. 2015
amino acids, vitamins, inorganic salts and sugars aluminum hydroxide, benzethonium chloride, formaldehyde, proteins (including 83kDa protective antigen)

3. BCG Vaccine
(tuberculosis)

PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
BCG Live
Tice BCG
Organon Teknika Corp.
Feb. 2009
glycerin, asparagine, citric acid, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, iron ammonium citrate lactose, saline
4. Cholera Vaccine
(tuberculosis)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Cholera Vaccine Live Oral
Vaxchora
Pax Vax Bermuda Ltd.
June 2016
casamino acids, yeast extract, mineral salts, anti-foaming agent ascorbic acid, Hy-Case SF (hydrolyzed casein), sodium chloride, sucrose, dried lactose, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate
5. DT Vaccine
(diphtheria & tetanus)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed
--
Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.
June 2013
peptone, bovine extract, modified Mueller and Miller medium, aluminum phosphate, isotonic sodium chloride solution, casein, cysteine, dextrose, uracil, inorganic salts, vitamins aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde
6. DTap Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, & pertussis)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed
Daptacel
Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.
2013
Stainer-Scholte medium, modified Mueller’s growth medium, modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), casamino acids, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin, ammonium sulfate, aluminum phosphate, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 2-Phenoxyethanol
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed
Infanrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2013
formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, Fenton medium (containing bovine extract), modified Latham medium (derived from bovine casein), modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, aluminum hydroxide aluminum hydroxide, polysorbate 80, sodium chloride, formaldehyde
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed
Tripedia*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
Dec. 2005
sodium phosphate, peptone-based medium, bovine extract (US sourced), formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate, modified Mueller and Miller medium, modified Stainer-Scholte medium, isotonic sodium, chloride solution, sodium phosphate thimerosal, gelatin, polysorbate 80(Tween 80), formaldehyde, aluminum
7. DTap-IPV Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, & polio)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine
Kinrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide, Vero cells, calf serum, lactalbumin hydrolysate, Fenton medium (containing bovine extract), modified Latham medium (derived from bovine casein), modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, formaldehyde
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine
Quadracel
Sanofi Pasteur
Mar. 2015
modified Mueller's growth medium, ammonium sulfate, modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), aluminum phosphate, modified Stainer-Scholte medium (added casamino acids and dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin), glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, MRC-5 cells (with added Medium 199 without calf serum) aluminum phosphate, 2-phenoxyethanol, water, polysorbate 80, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bovine serum albumin, neomycin, polymyxin B sulfate
8. DTap-HepB-IPV Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, & polio)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined
Pediarix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, calf serum, Fenton medium (containing bovine extract), modified Latham medium (derived from bovine casein), modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, Vero cells polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, yeast protein, aluminum salts, sodium chloride, formaldehyde
9. DTap-IPV/Hib Vaccine
(diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, & haemophilus influenzae type B)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine
Pentacel
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
2013
aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 2-phenoxyethanol, modified Mueller’s Growth Medium, Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), modified Stainer-Scholte medium (with added casamino acids, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin), MRC-5 cells, CMRL 1969 medium (supplemented with calf serum), ammonium sulfate, water, Medium 199 (without calf serum) polysorbate 80, bovine serum albumin, neomycin, sucrose, glutaraldehyde, polymyxin B sulfate, aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, 2-phenoxyethanol
10. Hib Vaccine
(haemophilus influenzae type B)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)
ActHIB
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
May 2016
ammonium sulfate, Modified Mueller and Miller medium, saline diluent, formaldehyde, casein derivatives sucrose, purified capsular polysaccharide
Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)
Hiberix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
formaldehyde, synthetic medium, semi-synthetic medium, saline diluent, lactose lactose, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, purified capsular polysaccharide
Haemophilus B Conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate)
Liquid PedvaxHIB
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Dec. 2010
complex fermentation media, ethanol amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, sodium chloride
11. Hib/Hep B Vaccine
(haemophilus influenzae type B & hepatitis B)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Haemophilus b Conjugate (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate) and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine
COMVAX*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Merck & Co., Inc.
Dec. 2010
yeast (vaccine contains no detectable yeast DNA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemin chloride, soy peptone, dextrose, mineral salts, amino acids, formaldehyde, potassium aluminum sulfate, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, sodium borate aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulphate, sodium chloride, formaldehyde
12. Hep A Vaccine
(hepatitis A)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)

Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated
Havrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
MRC-5 cells aluminum hydroxide, amino acid supplement, polysorbate 20, formaldehyde, neomycin sulfate, phosphate buffered saline, MRC-5 cellular proteins, aminoglycoside antibiotic

Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated
VAQTA
Merck & Co., Inc.
Dec. 2010
amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, formaldehyde, neomycin, MRC-5 fibroblasts bovine albumin, sodium borate, formaldehyde, non-viral proteins, sodium chloride, neomycin
13. Hep B Vaccine
(hepatitis B)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
Engerix-B
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016

aluminum hydroxide

aluminum hydroxide, yeast protein, phosphate buffers, sodium chloride, sodium dihydrogen, phosphate dihydrate
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
Recombivax
Merck & Co., Inc.
2014
yeast protein, soy peptone, dextrose, amino acids, mineral salts, alum (potassium aluminum sulfate), amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, formaldehyde formaldehyde, yeast protein, aluminum
14. Hep A/Hep B Vaccine
(hepatitis A & hepatitis B)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Hepatitis A Inactivated & Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine
Twinrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
yeast protein, MRC-5 cells, formaldehyde, aluminum salts neomycin sulfate, MRC-5 cell proteins, formaldehyde, yeast protein, water, aluminum phosphate, aluminum hydroxide, amino acids, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, polysorbate 20
15. HPV Vaccine
(human papillomavirus)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Human Papillomavirus Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant
Cervarix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
vitamins, amino acids, lipids, mineral salts, aluminum (as hydroxide salt), sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, sodium chloride, water insect cell and viral protein, sodium chloride, aluminum hydroxide, bacterial cell protein, sodium dihydrogen phosphate
Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Vaccine, Recombinant
Gardasil
Merck & Co., Inc.
2015
yeast protein, vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts, carbohydrates, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, aluminum-containing adjuvant L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant, sodium chloride, yeast protein, water
Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant
Gardasil 9
Merck & Co., Inc.
2015
vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts, carbohydrates, yeast cells, aluminum-containing adjuvant (Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sufate) aluminum (Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate, sodium chloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, yeast protein, water
16. Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine
(swine flu)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

--

CSL Unlimited
Nov. 2009
allantoic fluid of chicken eggs, sucrose, beta-Propiolactone, sodium, taurodeoxycholate, phosphate buffered isotonic solution sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, ovalbumin, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, beta-propiolactone
Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

--

ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec
Jan. 2010
allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, phosphate-buffered saline solution thimerosal, egg proteins, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate
Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

--

MedImmune LLC
Sep. 2009
specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs, sucrose, potassium phosphate monosodium glutamate, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, arginine, sucrose, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, gentamicin sulfate
Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

--

Sanofi Pasteur, Inc
Sep. 2009
embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, sucrose density solution, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100), sodium phosphate buffered isotonic chloride solution gelatin, formaldehyde, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether, sucrose
17. Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine
(bird flu)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Influenza Virus Vaccine (H5N1)

--

ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec
2013
phosphate buffered saline solution, allantoic cavity of embryonated hen's eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, DL-a-tocopherol, polysorbate 80 thimerosal, squalene, DL-a-tocopherol, polysorbate 80, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate
Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

--

Sanofi Pasteur, Inc
2007
embryonated chicken eggs, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution, nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100), sodium phosphate buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution porcine gelatin, thimerosal, formaldehyde, Polyethylene Glycol p-isooctylphenyl Ether, sucrose
18. Influenza Vaccine
(flu)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Afluria (Trivalent)
Seqirus Pty. Ltd.
2016-2017
beta-propiolactone, sodium taurodeoxycholate, allantoic fluid of embryonated chicken eggs, sucrose density agent, phosphate buffered isotonic solution thimerosal (multi-dose vials only), monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium taurodeoxycholate, neomycin sulfate, polymyxin B, ovalbumin, mercury, sodium, chloride, beta-propiolactone, sucrose
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Agriflu*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc.
Feb. 21, 2013
kanamycin, neomycin sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs formaldehyde, egg protein, polysorbate 80, CTAB, neomycin, kanamycin
Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted
Fluad (Trivalent)
Seqiris, Inc.
2016-2017
allantoic cavity of embryonated hen's eggs, MF59C.1 adjuvant (MF59), formaldehyde, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) MF59C.1 adjuvant (squalene, polysorbate 80, sorbitan trioleate, sodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid monohydrate), neomycin, kanamycin, barium, egg proteins, formaldehyde, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Fluarix Quadrivalent
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016-2017
embryonated chicken eggs, sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, sodium deoxycholate, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution (contains detergent) octoxynol-10 (Triton X-100), a-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), gentamicin sulfate, ovalbumin, hydrocortisone, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Fluarix Trivalent
GlaxoSmithKline Biologics
2015-2016
embryonated chicken eggs, linear sucrose density gradient solution (containing detergent), sodium deoxycholate, formaldehyde, sodium phosphate buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution octoxynol-10 (Triton 272 X0100), a-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80), hydrocortisone, gentamicin sulfate, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate
Influenza Vaccine
Flublok (Trivalent)
Protein Sciences Corporation
2016-2017
HA insect cell (fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda) proteins, lipids, vitamins, amino acids, mineral salts, Triton X-100 sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20), host cell proteins, baculovirus, Triton X-100, host cell DNA
Influenza Vaccine
Flucelvax (Quadrivalent)
Seqiris, Inc.
May 23, 2016
Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, B-propiolactone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, phosphate buffered saline MDCK cell protein, protein other than HA, MDCK cell DNA, polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, B-propiolactone
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Flucelvax (Trivalent)
Seqiris, Inc.
Apr. 2016
Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, B-propiolactone, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide MDCK cell protein, other cell proteins, MDCK cell DNA, polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, B-propiolactone
Influenza Virus Vaccine
FluLaval (Quadrivalent)
ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec
2016-2017
allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate thimerosal, ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, a-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80
Influenza Virus Vaccine
FluLaval (Trivalent)
ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec
2015-2016
allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate phosphate-buffered saline solution, thimerosal (multi-dose vaccine only), ovalbumin, formaldehyde, sodium deoxycholate, a-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, polysorbate 80
Influenza Virus Vaccine Live, Intranasal
FluMist Quadrivalent
MedImmune, LLC
2016-2017
SPF (specific pathogen-free) eggs, stabilizing buffer, sucrose, potassium phosphate monosodium glutamate, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, arginine, sucrose, dibasic potassium phosphate, monobasic potassium phosphate, ovalbumin, gentamicin sulfate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Fluvirin
Sequiris Vaccines, Ltd.
2016-2017
allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs, neomycin, polymyxin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate phosphate-buffered saline, thimerosal, egg proteins, polymyxin, neomycin, betapropiolactone, nonylphenol ethoxylate
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Fluzone (Quadrivalent): Standard, High Dose, & Intradermal
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
2016-2017
embryonated chicken eggs, Octylphenol Ethoxylate (Triton X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, formaldehyde, linear sucrose density gradient solution formaldehyde, octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton X-100), sodium phosphate-buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution, gelatin (standard formulation only), thimerosal (standard dosage multi-dose vial only)
19. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed
Ixiaro
Intercell Biomedical
2016
Vero cells, protamine sulfate, formaldehyde, aluminum hydroxide formaldehyde, bovine serum albumin, host cell DNA, sodium metabisulphite, host cell proteins, protamine sulphate
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated
JE-Vax*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University
Dec. 2005
mice (brains are inoculated with the virus), phosphate-buffered saline, formaldehyde, 40% w/v sucrose thimerosal, Sterile Water for Injection, gelatin, formaldehyde, v/v Polysorbate 80, mouse serum protein
20. Measles Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Measles Virus Vaccine, Live
Attenuvax*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Merck &Co., Inc.
Feb. 2006
chick embryo cell culture, buffered salt solution, vitamins, amino acides, fetal bovine serum, SPGA (sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, human albumin), neomycin sorbitol, sodium phosphate, sucrose, sodium, chloride, hydrolyzed gelatin, human albumin, fetal bovine serum, neomycin, other buffer and media ingredients
21. Meningococcal Vaccine
(meningitis)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Meningococcal Group B Vaccine
Bexsero
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics
2015
factor H binding protein (fHbp), Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMV), aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, histidine, sucrose, Escherichia coli (E. coli), deoxycholate kanamycin
Meningococcal (Serogroups A, C, Y and W-135)Polysaccharide Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine
MCV4-Menactra
Sanofi Pasteur Inc.
2014
Mueller Hinton agar, Watson Scherp media (containing casamino acid), formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, modified culture medium (containing hydrolyzed casein) formaldehyde, sodium phosphate buffered isotonic sodium chloride solution
Meningococcal Groups C and Y and Haemophilus b Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine
MenHibrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2013
semi-synthetic media, formaldehyde, sucrose, saline diluent, sterile saline solution Tris (trometamol)-HCL, sucrose, formaldehyde, saline diluent
Meningococcal (Groups A, C, Y, and W-135) Oligosaccharide Diphtheria CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine
Menveo
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc.
Aug. 2013
Franz Complete medium, formaldehyde, CY medium (contains yeast extracts and amino acids), purified polysaccharides, CRM197 protein formaldehyde
Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Groups A, C, Y, W135 Combined
Menomune-A/C/Y/W-135
Sanofi Pasteur Inc.
2016
Mueller Hinton casein agar, Watson Scherp casamino acid media distilled water, thimerosal, polysaccharide from serogroups A, C, Y, and w-135, mercury, lactose
Meningococcal Group B Vaccine
Trumenba
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
2016
E. coli, defined fermentation growth media, polysorbate 80 (PS80) polysorbate 80 (PS80), AI3+ (as AlPO4), mM histidine buffered saline
22. MMR Vaccine
(measles, mumps, & rubella)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live
M-M-R-II
Merck and Co., Inc.
Oct. 2015
chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, Medium 199 (containing vitamins, amino acids, fetal bovine serum, SPGA (sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, recombinant human albumin), neomycin, Minimum Essential Medium (containing vitamins, amino acids, fetal bovine serum, recombinant human albumin, neomycin), sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin stabilizer sorbitol, sodium phosphate, sucrose, sodium chloride, hydrolyzed gelatin, recombinant human albumin, fetal bovine serum, other buffer and media ingredients, neomycin
Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Virus Vaccine Live
ProQuad, Refrigerator Stable Formulation and Frozen Formulation
Merck and Co., Inc.
Oct. 2015
chick embryo cell culture, WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, MRC-5 cells, bovine serum, recombinant human albumin sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, urea (refrigerator stable formulation only), sodium chloride, sorbitol, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate, recombinant human albumin, sodium bicarbonate, potassium phosphate, potassium chloride, components of MRC-5 cells (including DNA and protein), neomycin, bovine serum albumin, other buffer and media ingredients, sodium phosphate dibasic (frozen formulation only), potassium phosphate monobasic (frozen formulation only), potassium phosphate dibasic (frozen formulation only)
23. Pneumococcal Vaccine
(pneumonia)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Pneumococcal 7-valent Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM197 Protein)
Prevnar*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Mar. 2009
soy peptone broth, casamino acids and yeast extract-based medium, ammonium sulfate, saccharides aluminum (as aluminum phosphate adjuvant)
Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM197 Protein)
Prevnar 13
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc.
2016
soy peptone broth, casamino acids and yeast extract-based medium, ammonium sulfate, CRM 197 polysorbate 80, succinate buffer, aluminum (as aluminum phosphate adjuvant)
Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent
Pneumovax-23
Merck & Co., Inc.
May 2014
-- isotonic saline solution, phenol
24. Polio Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (Monkey Kidney Cell)
IPOL
Sanofi Pasteur, SA
2015
Vero cells, Eagle MEM modified medium, newborn calf serum, M-199 (without calf serum) 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, calf bovine serum albumin
25. Rabies Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Rabies Vaccine
IMOVAX
Sanofi Pasteur, SA
Apr. 25, 2013
MRC-5 cells, beta-propiolactone human albumin, neomycin sulfate, phenol red indicator, beta-propiolactone
Rabies Vaccine
RabAvert
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics
Nov. 2013
chicken fibroblasts, synthetic cell culture medium (with added human albumin), polygeline (processed bovine gelatin), antibiotics, B-propiolactone, sucrose density-gradient, buffered polygeline, potassium glutamate polygeline (processed bovine gelatin), human serum albumin, potassium glutamate, sodium EDTA, bovine serum, chicken protein, chicken ovalbumin, neomycin, chlortetracycline, amphotericin B, water for injection
26. Rotavirus Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Pentavalent
RotaTeq
Merck & Co., Inc.
June 2013
Vero cells, buffered stabilizer, porcine-derived materials sucrose, sodium citrate, sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, sodium hydroxide, polysorbate 80, cell culture media, fetal bovine serum, DNA for porcine circoviruses
Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral
Rotarix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
Vero cells, porcine-derived materials, amino acids, dextran, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium sulfate, ferric (III) nitrate, sodium phosphate, sodium pyruvate, D-glucose, concentrated vitamin solution, L-cystine, L-tyrosine, amino acids solution, L-glutamine, calcium chloride, sodium hydrogenocarbonate, phenol red), sorbitol, sucrose calcium carbonate, sterile water, xanthan, porcine cirrovirus type 1
27. Rubella Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Rubella Virus Vaccine Live
MERUVAX II*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Merck & Co., Inc.
Feb. 2006
WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts, Minimum Essential Medium (MEM; buffered salt solution (vitamins, amino acids, bovine serum), human serum albumin, neomycin), sorbitol, hydrolyzed gelatin stabilizer sorbitol, sodium phosphate, sucrose, sodium chloride, hydrolyzed gelatin, human albumin, fetal bovine serum, other buffer and media ingredients, neomycin
28. Smallpox Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live
ACAM2000
Sanofi Pasteur Biologics Co.
Dec. 2015
Vero cells, human serum albumin, sodium chloride, mannitol, neomycin, polymyxin B, Dryvax glycerin, phenol in Water for Injection
29. TD Vaccine
(tetanus & diphtheria)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed For Adult Use
DECAVAC*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
Mar. 2011
Mueller and Miller medium, peptone-based medium, extract of bovine muscle tissue, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate thimerosal, aluminum potassium sulfate adjuvant, formaldehyde
Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed For Adult Use
TENIVAC
Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.
Apr. 2013
modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, modified Mueller's growth medium, aluminum phosphate aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, sodium chloride, water for injection
Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed
--
Mass Biologics
Feb. 2011
modified Mueller's media (contains bovine extracts), formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, aluminum phosphate aluminum adjuvant, formaldehyde, thimerosal
Tetanus Toxoid
--*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
Dec. 2005
peptone-based medium, formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, physiological saline solution thimerosal, formaldehyde
Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed
--*
*This vaccine has been discontinued.
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
July 2005
peptone-based medium (contains extract ofbovine muscle tissue), formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) thimerosal, physiological saline solution
30. Tdap Vaccine
(tetanus, diphtheria, & pertussis)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed
Adacel
Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd.
2015
modified Stainer-Scholte medium (added casamino acid, dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin), glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, aluminum phosphate, modified Mueller-Miller casamino acid medium (without beef heart infusion), ammonium sulfate, 2-phenoxyethanol, water for injection aluminum phosphate, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, 2-phenoxyethanol, water for injection
Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed
Boostrix
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals
2016
modified Latham medium derived from bovine casein, Fenton medium (containing bovine extract), formaldehyde, modified Stainer-Scholte liquid medium, glutaraldehyde, aluminum hydroxide aluminum hydroxide, sodium chloride, formaldehyde, polysorbate 80 (Tween 80)
31. Typhoid Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Typhoid Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine
Typhim Vi
Sanofi Pasteur SA
Mar. 2014
semi-synthetic medium, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide formaldehyde, phenol, polydimethylsiloxane or fatty-acid ester-cased antifoam, isotonic phosphate buffered saline, sodium chloride, disodium phosphate, monosodium phosphate, sterile water for injection, vi polysaccharide
Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a
Vivotif
Berna Biotech, Ltd.
Sep. 2013
yeast extract, casein, dextrose, and galactose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, amino acids, lactose, magnesium stearate sucrose, ascorbic acid, amino acid mixture, lactose, magnesium stearate
32. Varicella Vaccine
(chickenpox)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Varicella Virus Vaccine, Live
Varivax, Frozen and Refigerated
Merck & Co., Inc.
Dec. 2012
human embryonic lung cell cultures, embryonic guinea pig cell cultures, WI-38 human diploid cell cultures, MRC-5 human diploid cell cultures, sucrose, phosphate, glutamate, processed gelatin, urea (refrigerated vaccine only) sucrose, hydrolyzed gelatin, urea (refrigerated vaccine only), sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, components of MRC-5 cells (DNA, protein), neomycin, bovine calf serum, sodium phosphate monobasic, EDTA, fetal bovine serum
33. Yellow Fever Vaccine
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Yellow Fever Vaccine
YF-Vax
Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
June 2016
living avian leukosis virus-free (ALV-free) chicken embryos sorbitol, gelatin, sterile diluent (sodium chloride)
34. Zoster Vaccine
(shingles)
PROPER NAME
COMMERCIAL NAME
(click for package insert)
MANUFACTURER
PACKAGE INSERT DATE
GROWTH MEDIUMS & PROCESS INGREDIENTS VACCINE INGREDIENTS
(not in order of quantity; see package insert for quantities)
Zoster Vaccine, Live
Zostavax, Frozen and Refrigerator Stable
Merck & Co., Inc.
Feb. 2016
-- sucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L-glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride, components of MRC-5 cells (DNA, protein), neomycin, bovine calf serum, urea (refrigerator stable only)


vaccine syringe apple


 II. GLOSSARY AND DETAILS FOR INGREDIENTS

Product Possible Ingredients
(Ingredients depend on which modification is used.)
2-Phenoxyethanol 2-Phenoxyethanol is a glycol ether used as a preservative in vaccines.
Aluminum Aluminum is used in vaccines as an adjuvant, which helps the vaccine work more quickly and more powerfully.
Bovine casein A casein is a family of phosphoproteins commonly found in mammalian milk. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk are casein.
Bovine serum Bovine "[s]erum is the centrifuged fluid component of either clotted or defibrinated whole blood. Bovine serum comes from blood taken from domestic cattle. Serum from other animals is also collected and processed but bovine serum is processed in the greatest volume."

"Bovine serum is a by-product of the meat industry. Bovine blood may be taken at the time of slaughter, from adult cattle, calves, very young calves or (when cows that are slaughtered are subsequently found to be pregnant) from bovine fetuses. It is also obtained from what are called 'donor' animals, which give blood more than once.

Blood is available from bovine fetuses only because a proportion of female animals that are slaughtered for meat for human consumption are found (often unexpectedly) to be pregnant.

Blood is available from very young calves because calves, especially males from dairy breeds, are often slaughtered soon, but not necessarily immediately, after birth because raising them will not be economically beneficial. Older animals are, of course, slaughtered for meat.

Only donor cattle are raised for the purpose of blood donation. Donor cattle are invariably kept in specialized, controlled herds. Blood is taken from these animals in a very similar way to that used for human blood donation.

Irrespective of whether blood is taken at slaughter or from donors, the age of the animal is an important consideration because it impacts the characteristics of the serum.

Bovine serum is categorised according to the age of the animal from which the blood was
collected as follows:
•'Fetal bovine serum' comes from fetuses
•'Newborn calf serum' comes from calves less than three weeks old
•'Calf serum' comes from calves aged between three weeks and 12 months
•'Adult bovine serum' comes from cattle older than 12 months

Serum processed from donor blood is termed 'donor bovine serum'. Donor animals can be up to three years old."
Chicken Eggs Viruses can be grown in chicken eggs before being used in vaccinations.
CMRL-1969 L-alanine, L-arginine (free base)b, L-aspartic acid, L-cysteine-HCL, L-cystine, L-glutamic acid-H20, L-glutamine, glycine, L-histidine (free base)b, L-hydroxyproline, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine, p-aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, d-biotin, calcium pantothenate, cholesterol, choline chloride, ethanol, folic acid, glutathione, i-inositol, menadione, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal-HCL, pyridoxine-HCL, riboflavine, riboflavine-5-phosphate, sodium acetate-3H2O, thiamine-HCL, Tween 80, vitamin A acetate, vitamin D (calciferol), vitamin E (a-tocopherol phosphate), D-glucose, phenol red, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium culphate heptahydrate, sodium phosphate dibasic, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, monopotassium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, iron nitrate nonahydrate
Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Serum glucose, sodium bicarbonate, L-glutamine, pyridoxine HCl, pyridocal HCl, folic acid, phenol red, HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonic acid), L-methionine, L-cystine, sodium phosphate mono-basic, sodium pyruvate, vitamins
Earle's Balanced Salt Medium inorganic salts, D-glucose, phenol red, calcium, magnesium salts
Fenton Medium bovine extract
Formaldehyde Formaldehyde is used in vaccines to inactivate the virus so the person being inoculated does not contract the disease.
Human albumin Human albumin is a blood plasma protein produced in the liver that, among other functions, transports hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, and buffers pH.
Insect Cells Cabbage moth and fall armyworm cells are used to grow viruses for vaccines.
Latham Medium bovine casein
MDCK (Madin-Carby canine kidney cells) cells from normal female adult Cocker Spaniel (harvested in 1958 by SH Madin and NB Darby), EMEM(EBSS) (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's Balanced Salt Solution), glutamine, non essential amino acids, foetal bovine serum
Mouse Brains Live mice brains are inoculated with the Japanese encephalitis virus to grow the virus used in the vaccine.
MRC-5 Medical Research Council 5, human diploid cells (cells containing two sets of chromosomes) derived from the normal lung tissues of a 14-week-old male fetus aborted for "psychiatric reasons" in 1966 in the United Kingdom, Eagle's Basal Medium in Earle's balanced salt solution with bovine serum.
Mueller Hinton Agar beef extract, acid hydrolysate of casein, starch, agar
Mueller-Miller Medium glucose, sodium chloride, sodium phosphate dibasic, monopotassium, phosphate, magnesium sulfate hydrate, ferrous sulfate heptaphydrate, cystine hydrochloride, tyrosine hydrochloride, urasil hydrochloride, Ca-pantothenate in ethanol, thiamine in ethanol, pyridoxin-hydrochloride in ethanol, riboflavin in ethanol, biotin in ethanol, sodium hydroxide, beef heart infusion (de-fatted beef heart and distilled water), casein solution
Polysorbate 80 Also called Tween 80, Alkest 80, or Canarcel 80 (brand names). Polysorbate 80 is used as an excipient (something to basically thicken a vaccine for proper dosing) and an emulsifier (something to bond the ingredients).
Porcine gelatin Gelatin is used to protect viruses in vaccines from freeze-drying or heat and to stabilize vaccines so they stay stable.
Stainer-Scholte Liquid Medium tris hydrochloride, tris base, glutamate (monosodium salt), proline, salt, monopotassium phosphate, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, niacin, glutathione
Thimerosal Thimerosal is an organomercury compound used as a preservative.
Vero Cells (African Green Monkey Cells) cells derived from the kidney of a normal, adult African Green monkey in 1962 by Y. Yasumura and Y. Kawakita
WI-38 human diploid cells Winstar Institute 38, human diploid lung fibroblasts derived from the lung tissues of a female fetus aborted because the family felt they had too many children in 1964 in the United States




vaccine syringe vials

 III. SOURCES

Acumedia Manufacturers, "Mueller Hinton Agar (7101)," www.neogen.com, June 2011

Atlanta Biologicals, "Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS)," www.atlantabio.com, 2010

CDC, "Basics and Common Questions: Ingredients of Vaccines - Fact Sheet," www.cdc.gov, Feb. 22, 2011

FDA, "Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US with Supporting Documents," www.fda.gov, Aug. 29, 2016

Health Protection Agency, "General Cell Collection: MDCK," www.hpacultures.org.uk, 2011

G.M. Healy, S. Teleki, A.V. Seefried, M.J. Walton, and H.G. Macmorine, "Improved Chemically Defined Basal Medium (CMRL-1969) for Primary Monkey Kidney and Human Diploid Cells," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, www.aem.asm.org, 1971

International Serum Industry Association, "FAQ," www.serumindustry.org/faq, 2013

Pontifical Academy for Life, "Moral Reflections on Vaccines Prepared From Cells Derived From Aborted Human Foetuses," www.immunize.org/concerns/vaticandocument.htm, June 9, 2005

Rebecca Sheets, "History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line," www.fda.gov, May 12, 2000

Sigma-Aldrich, "DMEM," www.sigmaaldrich.com, 2013

Alison Weiss, "The Genus Bordetella," The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria," Ed. Martin M. Dworkin, Stanley Falkow, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, and Erko Stackebrandt, 2006.

World Health Organization, "Production and Control of Tetanus Vaccine: A Training Curriculum, Module III: Principles of Tetanus Vaccine Production," www.who.int, Sep. 3, 1999